10th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance
Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico April 23 – 27, 2018.
Session 7. Natural Enemies and Biological Control
Integrated control of fruit flies: compatibility between two biological control methods in natural environment
Antonio Sinzogan1, Aziz Achimi1, Florence M. Anato1, Aimé Bokonon-Ganta1 & Miriam Karlsson2,3
1Departement de Production Végétale, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 03 BP 2819 Cotonou, République du Bénin, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; 2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Tri Postal, 08 BP 0932 Cotonou, Benin; 3Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
Background: A native parasitoid Fopius caudatus Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a potential biological agent used to control fruit flies species belonging to genera Ceratitis. In addition, the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) sharing the same habitat with F. caudatus are also used for their predation and chemical compounds released on the fruits.
Methods: The compatibility between these two biological control agents was assessed in naturel environments. Four collections (286 samples) of Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce (Rubiaceae) were performed to determine the level of C. cosyra infestation and F. caudatus parasitism rate on trees with and without O. longinoda. The laboratory choice tests have highlighted the effect of O. longinoda chemicals substances on the behaviour of F. caudatus.
Results: The results showed that the infestation of C. cosyra (101.73 pupae) and the parasitism rate by F. caudatus (8.34 %) were higher in the absence of O. longinoda than in the presence of O. longinoda (infestation of C. cosyra : 67.37 pupae; rate of parasitism by F. caudatus 6.29 %). Thus, O. longinoda reduce both C. cosyra infestation and parasitism rate by F. caudatus. The presence of the chemical substances of O. longinoda on the fruits resulted in reduction of the frequency of probing and oviposition from females of F. caudatus. The chemical substances left by O. longinoda on fruits interfere negatively with the behavior of F. caudatus. Despite this negative impact, the infestation of C. cosyra is lower in the presence of the two biological control agents (F. caudatus and O. longinoda) than in the presence of a single control agent (F. caudatus).
Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that there is a negative biotic interference between F. caudatus and O. longinoda. However, both methods integrated in field, reduced fruits flies infestations compared to single utilization of parasitoids.
Key words: Integrated control methods, Ceratitis cosyra, Fopius caudatus, Oecophylla longinoda, Sarcocephalus latifolius, Parasitism.