1. Livestock, Fisheries and Aquaculture Program
Currently the Program is managing a portfolio of 4 projects funded by MDTF and two non-project activities funded by WAAPP. The implementation strategy makes use of IAR4D, including value chain approaches, innovation platform and gender mainstreaming in the projects. The focus of implementation over the past six months in line with the Annual Work Plan and Budget (AWPB) of 2015 was on promoting the dissemination and adoption of technologies and innovations delivered by the four MDTF-funded projects during 2014 through Innovation Platforms, capacity strengthening and publication of results. The outcomes and project results presented here are against the background of the fact the reporting period is largely off-season. As a consequence, field based project activities that would have added on the results were limited. However, the period was used by the project actors and beneficiaries to upgrade implementation facilities and creating those enabling conditions including the rehabilitation of pond with water and fish seed, which would foster implementation, and delivery of concrete results in the ensuing period. In spite of these realities, overall technical implementation currently across all four projects stands at about 80%.
Improving Productivity and Competitiveness of Dairy Sub-sector in West and Central Africa (AMPROLAIT)
Key Project Achievements
Under the project on improving productivity and competitiveness of dairy sub-sector in West and Central Africa (AMPROLAIT), the following technologies and innovations were promoted
Technologies and innovations developed
- On the basis of previous studies on milk quality, three (3) hygiene kits for transporting and processing of local milk were developed: Kit for farmers; Kit for collectors. The Kit for farmer includes: a milking blouse, a small milking aluminum-pail with lid, a sieve, a milking towel, a clean plastic bucket containing water and soap to clean the cow udders and a container for the collection of the farm milk; the Kit for collector includes: a cleaning towel, a small can of water, a sieve, soap and an aluminum collection tank with lid; and the Kit for processor includes: a blouse, gloves, a hat, shoes, a tank, a densitometer, soap, a bucket of water.
- Knowledge on hygienic quality of milk improved, by using tests for detecting mastitis and antibiotic residues in milk from 101 cows in traditional farms in the Kaolack region:
the prevalence of mastitis in cows in the region of Kaolack is 10% detected ; this prevalence rate of mastitis have a negative impact on milk production for cows that already have low productivity (less than 2 liters per day); the mastitis diagnostic test was performed using the California Mastitis Test® – CMT (Figure 1)
the presence of antibiotic residues in milk marketed is 2%; the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is dangerous to consumer health as some of these residues are toxic (carcinogenic). The antibiotic residues in milk have been highlighted by the Delvotest® (Figure 2).
The next steps will consist in strengthening the capacities of farmers and other value chain actors on appropriate actions for promoting milk quality along the value chain.
Integrated Aquaculture with Rice and Poultry Production in West and Central Africa (SIARP-ESEA project)
The project on promoting integrated aquaculture with rice and poultry production in West and Central Africa (SIARP-ESEA project), developed the following technologies and innovations.
Technologies and innovations
A template for cost effective and profitable means of fish production was developed:
- Profitability analysis of fish integrated with rice and poultry under adaptive research revealed that the gross margin, net income, profitability index and cost benefit ratio were ₦295,536, ₦204,834, 0.23 and 1.3 respectively;
- The results from the study showed that Integrated fish farming is more profitable than unitary system of farming as it ensures a spread of financial risk for its varied and diversified nature in rearing of fish, animals and crops;
- Comparative analysis of biological productivity and yield of Integrated Aquaculture system (IAS) with conventional fish pond system showed that mean Food Conversion Ratio and Specific Growth Rate of 1.90± 0.18; 3.96±1.02 (convectional system) and 1.25±0.22; 3.16±0.29 (IAS) were recorded respectively. The total yield of rice harvested after 12 weeks in the paddy area of the pond in IAS was 20kg which can be extrapolated to 3.3t/ha. Extrapolated figures between 1.63t/ha and 2.3t/ha was recorded in conventional system of rice production. Mean egg production of 52±1.50eggs per day and 53±1.0eggs per day were obtained in IAS and convectional system respectively. Water was about 17 times more efficiently utilized by integrated system of rice production than conventional irrigation system. Mean phytoplankton recorded in unfertilized pond was 12.71x 106/l, while 78.18X106/l was recorded after 12 weeks manure loading. Mean zooplankton population in the unfertilized pond was 15.4X106l, and 67.4X106 after 12 weeks of manure loading.
On the basis of technologies/innovations generated previously, the project activities have been focused on dissemination to the beneficiaries:
- Construction works of five additional demonstration plots in various communities selected across Nigeria;
- Four adopted schools have been selected for the project intervention in Nigeria with infrastructure almost at 80% completion in two of the selected adopted schools ;
- Production and distribution of 25,000 fish seeds of African catfish and Nile Tilapia to fish farmers in the demonstration plots and farmers adopting the technology;
- Five modern smoking kilns are under construction for distribution to fish processors/farmers ;
- The project has signed an MoU with WAAPP Nigeria on fingerlings multiplication and dissemination of the integrated fish farming across twelve states in Nigeria;
- Project signed an MoU with Grand Cereal Nigeria Ltd., a private fish feed manufacturing company on fish feed development and research.
Intensifying Ecologically Small holder Fish Farming Systems in West and Central Africa (SyPiEx project)
The growing demand for fish presents opportunities for intensive smallholder production for increased incomes of producers in rural areas in West and Central Africa. The decrease of availability of fish from wild harvests as a result of large-scale captures of fish justifies the need for intensifying smallholder production. This project is promoting cost-effective and easily adaptable technologies aimed at enhancing fish farming and productivity in rural communities in Benin, Cameroon and Côte d’Ivoire. The achievements carried out during the last semester are presented below.
The implementation of the project on intensifying ecologically small holder fish farming systems in West and Central Africa (SyPiEx project) developed and promoted the following technologies and innovations during the reporting period:
Technologies and innovations
Six (6) technologies and innovations to address the majors constraints and farmers needs developed:
- Three (3) technologies in Biotechnical and environmental optimization of extensive family fish farming systems developed: (1) improving natural productivity of trophic network (plankton, organic matter), (2) putting into use the local by-products in fish feeding) and (3) integrated fish farming with rice, an ecological intensification option of extensive family fish farms;
- Improved technology for Tilapia seed production in the extensive family fish farming systems developed;
- Technique for successive stocking of pond to improve the productivity of family extensive fish farming;
- Co-culture of Tilapia and Clariasgariepinus: production improvement pathways.
These technologies/innovations will be validated by the Innovation platforms and disseminated to a larger number of beneficiaries during the next quarters of the year.
2. Non Staple Crops Program
The program continued to provide technical oversight support to all the implementing partners during the course of the last six months. Given that the period under review was largely a period during which much farming could take place, all efforts were directed towards sustaining the momentum of technology generation from the last period, and strengthening capacities of project beneficiaries in all the intervention areas.
Of the 6 projects, « Enhancing productivity, competitiveness and marketing of traditional African (leafy) vegetables for improved income and nutrition in West and Central Africa (TAV)”continues to deliver outstanding results on the ground. These results include, capacity building especially for women and youth, making available planting material, and improved seed varieties seeds.
The activities of the Cocoa Project were on rejuvenation methods and clones, while the Cotton project focused on monitoring of the spatiotemporal dynamics of Dysderchusspp help map out the seasonal variation of the insect and also have the peak of infestation and the average level of out breaks for each site.
Other achievements of the projects include, production of draft booklets on (1) pest recognition and types of insecticide 2) survey of parasites 3) guideline for threshold treatments 4) guideline for fractionation of the harvesting of cotton.
In spite of these achievements during the reporting period, it is important to note the seasonal effects on the performance of most of the projects. By the very nature of the projects, activities are normally undertaken over the period July through November. A case in point is the GIRCOT project which deals with how to more effectively use treatments on cotton during the growing season and also how to efficiently harvest cotton in order to minimize losses.
Key Project Achievements:
Enhancing productivity, competitiveness and marketing of traditional African (leafy) vegetables for improved income and nutrition in West and Central Africa
In Burkina Faso six (6) out of the 12 varieties received from AVRDC have been evaluated with 19 farmers (two young males and 17 females).Plastic mulch was validated against hay mulch and bare soil with respect to plant growth and development.
More than 200 women trained in TAVs production have appreciated the concept of home garden establishment. Seeds multiplied in each Village Model Farms were distributed to 183 females’ producers. 10 farmers (seven women, three men) trained in TAV production using grass mulch in the dry season. Six students (5 male, 1 female) of Agriculture School in Ebolowa have been empowered in the TAV production. 21 women have been trained in the West Region (Foumbot) in nursery techniques by a trainee who is also a, lead farmer in one of the beneficiary communities in the Southern region..
With support from the project one Master student has completed his thesis on “The effect of planting distances of three different TAVs on pest complex, infestation, damage level, growth and yield”.
6 vegetable farmers (4 men and 2 women) were trained in farm business and entrepreneurship skills by the American Peace Corps Volunteers. 174 individuals (164 women, 10 men) were trained in production of more than seven TAV varieties
Facilitating sustainable intensification of smallholder cacao farming systems in West and Central Africa [COCOA]
Eight (8) cocoa clones have been made available to five communities with aged cocoa tree stocks. Two hundred (200) clones selected from 40 high yielding families are being tested for precocity. The following practices on the use of improved seeds have been adopted and being applied by farmers:
- Establishment of nursery before the establishment of a cocoa farm;
- Recognition of symptoms of cocoa swollen shoot disease;
- Regeneration of the fields by the pruning of the trees and removal of gourmands (Côte d’Ivoire);
- Regeneration of old cocoa trees using grafting on chupons after coppicing (Cameroon).
Women, genetic adaptation and Technical Control from production to Marketing in the Diversification of non-food crops in cotton zones (FAM & COMM)
A methodology to understand the role and contribution of women in the cotton, soybean and sesame value chains has been designed.
Surveys on [Time use] the time spent by women on the cotton field and on the farm land , and daily occupation of women (work time) are on-going.
A platform, devoted to women in the cotton zones, for sharing the socio-economic survey data has been set up it is available at http://www.odafine.net/infos/about
Integrated management of Ralstoniasolanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi and in the context of increased phytosanitary risks related to climate change (Ralstonia BLT)
Grafting techniques are being used in Senegal (River Valley) as a mean of controlling Ralstonia. The tomato variety Mongal is resistant to the disease in all the four countries (Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali and Senegal). Hence this variety could be promoted in the sub-region. Two new potato varieties resistant to Ralstonia were promoted in Guinea they are: Mandola and Spounta. In Senegal one variety Safraneis being promoted.
Improving food safety, food quality and income poor actresses and actors of the value chain of peanut West Africa by reducing aflatoxin (GestAflAr):
Of the 289 samples analyzed for aflatoxin contamination, the average level of aflatoxin was 24 ppb (24 micrograms / kg). On the value chain the highest contamination was observed in the shops of traders (836 ppb). On the products cakes are the most contaminated as indicated below.
Contamination of aflatoxin varied depending on the product; cakes are the most contaminated (76 ppb) followed by flour (49 ppb) peanut butter (37.1 ppb) and seeds (18.8 ppb). The transformation processes are to blame for this gradual contamination at each stage during which the grain is wet to facilitate the process. Breeder’s seed of a very short duration variety was produced in Senegal in an amount of 1.5 t to be given to farmers for further multiplication and use. This variety help avoid pre-harvest contamination because of its earliness.
Integrated pest management on threshold and splitting of harvest for sustainable cotton production in West Africa (GIRCOT)
Monitoring the dynamics of infestation of bedbugs Dysdercus
Thirty (30) plots followed, four parcels were infested including three in the municipality of Gogounou and at Alafiarou in the commune of do Dali. The infestations reached a peak in the last quarter of 2014 (beginning from the month of October) , the post-harvet period. as shown below.
Establishment of the reference/baseline situation
Analysis of the results indicate that levels of knowledge of the treatment on threshold and fractionation of crops are 76% and 89%, respectively. Although the producers are aware of these technologies, they no longer use the treatment on threshold while splitting crops utilization rate is 22%. The utilization rate of treatment on threshold in the past by the producers informed throughout the study area is 67%.
The cost-benefit analysis shows that the average yield is 1094 kg/ha while gross margin and net margin are 152 593 FCFA/ha and 131 813 FCFA /ha, respectively. The analysis of the profile of poverty shows that 36% of producers are below the poverty line. The depth and severity of poverty are 0.11 and 0.39 respectively.
3.Natural Resources Management Program (NRM)
The three projects are focused on livestock genetic resources, cocoa agroforestry and use of urban waste in agriculture respectively. All the projects had established platforms that are functional with a collective collaboration of stakeholders in pursuing the respective objectives. Generally the reporting period which covers part of last year since the last mission in November 2014 and the first quarter of 2015 coincides with the dry season which is the end of the previous cropping and preparation for the onset of rains and cropping. In effect field activities for crops mainly involved observations of parameters mainly shading in the cocoa agroforestry systems and preparations of compost for rainy season cropping in the Externalities project.
Meanwhile, a draft field strategy for the effective conservation of animal genetic resources and the refurbishing and equipping of an analytical laboratory……
Key Project Achievements
Reversing the negative effects of agricultural intensification in peri-urban areas: methods and tools for assessment and alternative practices
The project target for the 2015 period is a total of 2,100 people (including 30% of women – 1,470). During the period under review a module for a Master degree was designed, diagnostic analysis of soils in the three countries and training of women in composting. The following results were obtained:
- The results of the diagnostic study of the samples from Burkina Faso, Togo and Congo also show an accumulation of HTA in the surface horizons of cultivated plots with intensive input from urban waste. Accumulations of ETM in surface soil horizons could affect long-term agricultural production due to phytotoxicity of these ETM. Moreover, Classical analysis on soils in Burkina show higher contents of C, N and P in soils amended with respect to the control soils. Soil texture is sandyloam to loamysand surface.
- A « Soils and Environment » module for Master in Soil Sciences developed at the University of Ouagadougou and students were orientated in chemical composition of urban waste. A significant insight into local conditions with implications for public health was delivered to 500 students in the University of Ouagadougou.
- A total of 30 women of the green brigade of Ouagadougou with enhanced knowledge and ability to produce compost from urban waste collected in the city of Ouagadougou. These women will apply the acquired knowledge to produce appropriate compost that will boost their yields while having due consideration of health hazards of the urban waste and possible prevention.
- Six different types of composts were produced by the research team from three solid waste of the city of Ouagadougou to be used in agronomic trial during the forth-coming cropping season at Gampela (outskirts of Ouagadougou). Improved compost options could increase yields of farmers.
Overall a total of 500 (24%) beneficiaries of the targeted 2100 were reached 500 (male 380 – 26% of target and female 120 19% of target. The capacity strengthening target of 400 male and 300 female was achieved with 95% for males and 40% for women.
During the remaining months of the year, capacity strengthening will continue while the composts will be tried by women on vegetables. The final analysis of the soils will be done and results published. The overall target of 2100 beneficiaries is expected to be reached before the end of the year.
Optimizing productivity and perennial intercrop diversity tradeoffs in West and Central Africa cocoa farms
The project is targeting a total of 600 people (comprising 550 men and 50 women) during 2015. During the period under review data collection was done on effects of shade on growth and productivity of cocoa trees including disease and insect infection and infestation, respectively. The following results were obtained:
Differential shading related to agro-ecology was been noted in Cameroon. In the high rainfall zone (and high relative humidity) the risk of black pod (disease) is high. Incorporating trees will further increase shade and the risk of disease is very high. That is why in the area of the Meme and Fako shade trees are used less. In low, average rainfall, areas average shade increase productivity (due to the low incidence of the disease and lower incidence of mérides). Effect on yield is being analyzed.
- A total of 464 men (80% of target) and 15 women (30% of target) were reached during the period under review. During the rest of the year pruning of shades will continue while improved seedlings will be supplied to farmers. Optimum shading recommendations will then be promoted among platform members while demonstration plots will also be established in the farms of volunteer farmers. It is expected that the number of targeted beneficiaries will be reached by the end of the year.
Introgression of Sahelian zebu cattle into trypanotolerant Boss taurus population of West Africa
- The project is targeting to benefit a total of 13,300 people (comprising of 10, 500 men (79%) and 2,800 women (21%)) during 2015. During the period under review a laboratory for molecular analysis was refurbished and equipped, a draft strategy of conservations of livestock genetic resources developed and capacity of herders strengthened in breed management.
- A total of 552 beneficiaries (8% of total beneficiaries) were reached. This comprised of 450 men and 102 women. During the rest of the year the strategy will be analyzed and it will be promoted among platform members as well as policy makers in the region. The targeted number of beneficiaries is expected to be reached during the remaining period. Capacity strengthening in breed management will also be pursued, while the laboratory will continue to provide service in analyzing blood samples.
- Capacity for molecular analysis enhanced: A laboratory space provided by INERA for the project was refurbished with demarcation of 3 rooms; two for analytical services and one for housing students. Key equipment including PCR plate, centrifuge and water bath were installed. The laboratory is now functional and can analyze blood samples a service that was sought outside the continent earlier in the project. This will certainly facilitate genetic studies in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries.
- A draft strategic document on the management of animal genetic resources in Burkina Faso, Benin and Mali was produced. This draft document outlines key strategies including selection and cross breeding for improvement in the conservation of animal genetic resources based on prevailing conditions in the respective countries. This strategies when finally shared with relevant communities will greatly help in conserving the valuable ndama breed.
4.Biotechnology & Biosafety Program
Key Project achievements
Technologies and improved agricultural practices developed
Under the FTF initiative, 96 new technologies and improved agricultural practices were developed in new areas, among which, 10 were in the development phase, 62 under field testing and 25 made available for larger dissemination. These technologies include varieties of rice, maize and sorghum as well as soil fertility and water management practices. A total of 248.25 ha were cultivated with the new technologies/good practices, including 21.25 ha of rice, 227 ha of sorghum.